PROCESS STRANDS 
 Problem solving
 Reasoning and Proof
 Communication
 Connections
 Representation

Problem solving 
8.PS.1 Explore, examine, and make observations about a social problem or mathematical situation 
8.PS.2 Understand that some ways of representing a problem are more helpful than others 
8.PS.3 Interpret information correctly, identify the problem, and generate possible solutions 
8.PS.4 Act out or model with manipulatives activities involving mathematical content from literature 
8.PS.5 Formulate problems and solutions from everyday situations 
8.PS.6 Translate from a picture/diagram to a numeric expression 
8.PS.7 Represent problem solving situations in oral, written, concrete, pictorial, and graphical forms 
8.PS.8 Select an appropriate representation of a problem 
8.PS.9 Use trial and error to solve problems 
8.PS.10 Use process of elimination to solve problems 
8.PS.11 Make pictures/diagrams of problems 
8.PS.12 Use physical objects to model problems 
8.PS.13 Work in collaboration with others to solve problems 
8.PS.14 Make organized lists to solve numerical problems 
8.PS.15 Make charts to solve numerical problems 
8.PS.16 Analyze problems by identifying relationships 
8.PS.17 Analyze problems by identifying relevant versus irrelevant information 
8.PS.18 Analyze problems by observing patterns 
8.PS.19 State a problem in their own words 
8.PS.20 Determine what information is needed to solve a problem 
8.PS.21 Discuss with peers to understand a problem situation 
8.PS.22 Discuss the efficiency of different representations of a problem 
8.PS.23 Verify results of a problem 
8.PS.24 Recognize invalid approaches 
8.PS.25 Determine whether a solution is reasonable in the context of the original problem 

Reasoning and Proof 
8.RP.1 Use representations to support mathematical ideas 
8.RP.2 Determine whether a mathematical statement is true or false and explain why 
8.RP.3 Investigate the use of knowledgeable guessing by generalizing mathematical ideas 
8.RP.4 Make conjectures from a variety of representations 
8.RP.5 Justify general claims or conjectures, using manipulatives, models, and expressions 
8.RP.6 Develop and explain an argument using oral, written, concrete, pictorial, and/or graphical forms 
8.RP.7 Discuss, listen, and make comments that support or reject claims made by other students 
8.RP.8 Support an argument by trying many cases 

Communication 
8.CM.1 Understand and explain how to organize their thought process 
8.CM.2 Verbally explain their rationale for strategy selection 
8.CM.3 Provide reasoning both in written and verbal form 
8.CM.4 Organize and accurately label work 
8.CM.5 Share organized mathematical ideas through the manipulation of objects, drawings, pictures, charts, graphs, tables, diagrams, models, symbols, and
expressions in written and verbal form 
8.CM.6 Answer clarifying questions from others 
8.CM.7 Listen for understanding of mathematical solutions shared by other students 
8.CM.8 Consider strategies used and solutions found in relation to their own work 
8.CM.9 Increase their use of mathematical vocabulary and language when communicating with others 
8.CM.10 Describe objects, relationships, solutions and rationale using appropriate vocabulary 
8.CM.11 Decode and comprehend mathematical visuals and symbols to construct meaning 

Connections 
8.CN.1 Recognize, understand, and make connections in their everyday experiences to mathematical ideas 
8.CN.2 Compare and contrast mathematical ideas 
8.CN.3 Connect and apply mathematical information to solve problems 
8.CN.4 Understand multiple representations and how they are related 
8.CN.5 Model situations with objects and representations and be able to make observations 
8.CN.6 Recognize the presence of mathematics in their daily lives 
8.CN.7 Apply mathematics to solve problems that develop outside of mathematics 
8.CN.8 Recognize and apply mathematics to other disciplines 

Representation 
8.R.1 Use verbal and written language, physical models, drawing charts, graphs, tables, symbols, and equations as representations 
8.R.2 Share mental images of mathematical ideas and understandings 
8.R.3 Recognize and use external mathematical representations 
8.R.4 Use standard and nonstandard representations with accuracy and detail 
8.R.5 Understand similarities and differences in representations 
8.R.6 Connect mathematical representations with problem solving 
8.R.7 Construct effective representations to solve problems 
8.R.8 Use mathematics to show and understand physical phenomena (e.g., estimate and represent the number of apples in a tree) 
8.R.9 Use mathematics to show and understand social phenomena (e.g., determine the number of buses required for a field trip) 
8.R.10 Use mathematics to show and understand mathematical phenomena (e.g., use a multiplication grid to solve odd and even number problems)

The Process Strands highlight ways of acquiring and using content knowledge. Though the Process Strands are not individually covered, students are
required to problem solve, reason, and apply their knowledge throughout. 

